Playing in his record-tying 174th consecutive game for Miami, Robinson shot 9 of 13 from the field, making 5 of 9 3-pointers.
Dewayne Dedmon had 20 points and 12 rebounds, and Kyle Lowry finished with 16 points and 14 assists for the Heat.
Zach LaVine scored 31 points for Chicago.
The Bulls lost two additional players to health and safety protocols hours before the game. Guards Ayo Dosunmu and recently signed Stanley Johnson were ruled out, joining leading scorer DeMar DeRozan as well as Matt Thomas, Coby White, Javonte Green and Derrick Jones Jr.